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However, the Irish pound continued to exist and was not replaced by sterling until January The conversion rate had long been 13 Irish pounds to 12 pounds sterling.
The Irish pound was readopted in , six years after the Anglo-Irish Treaty restored Irish independence. Sterling circulated in much of the British Empire.
In some parts, it was used alongside local currencies. For example, the gold sovereign was legal tender in Canada despite the use of the Canadian dollar.
Several colonies and dominions adopted the pound as their own currency. Some of these retained parity with sterling throughout their existence e.
These currencies and others tied to sterling constituted the sterling area. The original English colonies on mainland North America were not party to the sterling area because the above-mentioned silver shortage in England coincided with these colonies' formative years.
As a result of equitable trade and rather less equitable piracy , the Spanish milled dollar became the most common coin within the English colonies.
During the American war of independence and the Napoleonic wars , Bank of England notes were legal tender , and their value floated relative to gold.
The Bank also issued silver tokens to alleviate the shortage of silver coins. In , the gold standard was adopted officially, with silver coins minted at a rate of 66 shillings to a troy pound of sterling silver, thus rendering them as "token" issues i.
In , the sovereign was introduced, valued at 20 shillings. By the 19th century, the pound sterling was widely accepted outside Britain.
The American Nellie Bly carried Bank of England notes on her — trip around the world in 72 days. As a consequence, conversion rates between different currencies could be determined simply from the respective gold standards.
The pound sterling was equal to 4. After the International Monetary Conference of in Paris, the possibility of the UK joining the Latin Monetary Union was discussed, and a Royal Commission on International Coinage examined the issues,  resulting in a decision against joining monetary union.
The gold standard was suspended at the outbreak of the war in , with Bank of England and Treasury notes becoming legal tender.
In , an agreement with the US pegged the pound to the U. Under continuing economic pressure, and despite months of denials that it would do so, on 19 September the government devalued the pound by In , , and , the pound came under renewed pressure, as speculators were selling pounds for dollars.
In summer , with the value of the pound falling in the currency markets, exchange controls were tightened by the Wilson government.
The pound was devalued by Until decimalisation, amounts were stated in pounds, shillings, and pence, with various widely understood notations.
It was customary to specify some prices for example professional fees and auction prices for works of art in guineas one guinea was 21 shillings although guinea coins were no longer in use.
Formal parliamentary proposals to decimalise sterling were first made in when Sir John Wrottesley , MP for Staffordshire , asked in the British House of Commons whether consideration had been given to decimalising the currency.
However, full decimalisation was resisted, although the florin coin, re-designated as ten new pence , survived the transfer to a full decimal system in , with examples surviving in British coinage until John Benjamin Smith , MP for Stirling Burghs , raised the issue of full decimalisation again in Parliament in ,  resulting in the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Gladstone , announcing soon afterwards that "the great question of a decimal coinage" was "now under serious consideration".
However, the pound sterling was decimalised in various British colonial territories before the United Kingdom and in several cases in line with William Brown's proposal that the pound be divided into 1, parts, called mils.
These included Hong Kong from to ;  Cyprus from until and continued on the island as the division of the Cypriot pound until ; and the Palestine Mandate from until Towards the end of the Second World War, various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling in the United Kingdom were made [ citation needed ].
Later, in , the British government decided to include in the Queen's Speech a plan to convert the pound into a decimal currency.
The word "new" was omitted from coins minted after With the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system , the pound floated from August onwards.
The sterling area effectively ended at this time, when the majority of its members also chose to float freely against the pound and the dollar.
James Callaghan became Prime Minister in He was immediately told the economy was facing huge problems, according to documents released in by the National Archives.
It was nice knowing you". The Conservative Party was elected to office in , on a programme of fiscal austerity. The high exchange rate was widely blamed for the deep recession of In , Margaret Thatcher 's Chancellor of the Exchequer , Nigel Lawson , decided that the pound should "shadow" the West German Deutsche Mark DM , with the unintended result of a rapid rise in inflation as the economy boomed due to low-interest rates.
For ideological reasons, the Conservative Government declined to use alternative mechanisms to control the explosion of credit.
Following German reunification in , the reverse held true, as high German borrowing costs to fund Eastern reconstruction, exacerbated by the political decision to convert the Ostmark to the DM on a basis, meant that interest rates in other countries shadowing the DM, especially the UK, were far too high relative to domestic circumstances, leading to a housing decline and recession.
However, the country was forced to withdraw from the system on " Black Wednesday " 16 September as Britain's economic performance made the exchange rate unsustainable.
The exchange rate fell to DM2. In , the newly elected Labour government handed over day-to-day control of interest rates to the Bank of England a policy that had originally been advocated by the Liberal Democrats.
On 17 April , annual CPI inflation was reported at 3. Accordingly, and for the first time, the Governor had to write publicly to the government explaining why inflation was more than one percentage point higher than its target.
In , Gordon Brown , then Chancellor of the Exchequer , ruled out membership for the foreseeable future, saying that the decision not to join had been right for Britain and for Europe.
On 1 January , with the Republic of Cyprus switching its currency from the Cypriot pound to the euro, the British sovereign bases on Cyprus Akrotiri and Dhekelia followed suit, making the Sovereign Base Areas the only territory under British sovereignty to officially use the euro.
The government of former Prime Minister Tony Blair had pledged to hold a public referendum to decide on the adoption of the Euro should " five economic tests " be met, to increase the likelihood that any adoption of the euro would be in the national interest.
In addition to these internal national criteria, the UK would have to meet the European Union's economic convergence criteria Maastricht criteria before being allowed to adopt the euro.
The Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government — ruled out joining the euro for that parliamentary term.
The idea of replacing the pound with the euro was always controversial with the British public, partly because of the pound's identity as a symbol of British sovereignty and because it would, according to some critics, have led to suboptimal interest rates, harming the British economy.
Denmark and the UK have opt-outs from entry to the euro. Theoretically, every other EU nation must eventually sign up.
As a member of the European Union , the United Kingdom could have adopted the euro as its currency. However, the subject was always politically controversial, and the UK negotiated an opt-out on this issue.
The pound and the euro fluctuate in value against one another, although there may be correlation between movements in their respective exchange rates with other currencies such as the US dollar.
Inflation concerns in the UK led the Bank of England to raise interest rates in late and This was the first time in the United Kingdom's history that this measure had been used, although the Bank's Governor Mervyn King suggested it was not an experiment.
The process saw the Bank of England creating new money for itself, which it then used to purchase assets such as government bonds , secured commercial paper , or corporate bonds.
The result of the UK referendum on EU membership caused a major decline in the pound against other world currencies as the future of international trade relationships and domestic political leadership became unclear.
The inflation rate rose in following years, reaching 5. The silver penny plural: pence ; abbreviation: d was the principal and often the only coin in circulation from the 8th century until the 13th century.
Although some fractions of the penny were struck see farthing and halfpenny , it was more common to find pennies cut into halves and quarters to provide smaller change.
Very few gold coins were struck, with the gold penny worth 20 silver pence a rare example. However, in , the groat , worth 4d, was introduced, with the half groat following in The reign of Henry VII saw the introduction of two important coins: the shilling abbr.
Gold coins included the half-crown, crown, angel, half-sovereign and sovereign. Elizabeth's reign also saw the introduction of the horse-drawn screw press to produce the first "milled" coins.
The first base metal coins were also introduced: tin and copper farthings. Copper halfpenny coins followed in the reign of Charles I.
During the English Civil War , a number of siege coinages were produced, often in unusual denominations. Following the restoration of the monarchy in , the coinage was reformed, with the ending of production of hammered coins in The copper penny was the only one of these coins to survive long.
To alleviate the shortage of silver coins, between and , the Bank of England counterstamped Spanish dollars 8 reales and other Spanish and Spanish colonial coins for circulation.
A small counterstamp of the King's head was used. The crown was only issued intermittently until The silver 4d coin was reintroduced in , followed by the 3d in , with the 4d coin issued only for colonial use after During the First World War , production of the sovereign and half-sovereign was suspended, and although the gold standard was later restored, the coins saw little circulation thereafter.
In , the silver standard, maintained at. In , a nickel-brass 3d coin was introduced; the last silver 3d coins were issued seven years later.
In , the remaining silver coins were replaced with cupro-nickel , with the exception of Maundy coinage which was then restored to.
Inflation caused the farthing to cease production in and be demonetised in In the run-up to decimalisation, the halfpenny and half-crown were demonetised in As of [update] , the oldest circulating coins in the UK are the 1p and 2p copper coins introduced in No other coins from before are in circulation.
Prior to the withdrawal from circulation in , the oldest circulating coins had usually dated from although older coins shilling; florin, sixpence to were still legal tender, inflation meant that their silver content was worth more than their face value, which meant that they tended to be removed from circulation.
Before decimalisation in , a handful of change might have contained coins or more years old, bearing any of five monarchs' heads, especially in the copper coins.
The first sterling notes were issued by the Bank of England shortly after its foundation in Denominations were initially handwritten on the notes at the time of issue.
The lowest two denominations were withdrawn after the end of the Napoleonic wars. The Bank of Scotland began issuing notes in From , the Royal Bank of Scotland also issued notes.
Both banks issued some notes denominated in guineas as well as pounds. With the extension of sterling to Ireland in , the Bank of Ireland began issuing sterling notes, later followed by other Irish banks.
From , new banks were excluded from issuing notes in England and Wales but not in Scotland and Ireland. Consequently, the number of private banknotes dwindled in England and Wales but proliferated in Scotland and Ireland.
The last English private banknotes were issued in These circulated until when they were replaced by Bank of England notes. Irish independence reduced the number of Irish banks issuing sterling notes to five operating in Northern Ireland.
Scottish and Northern Irish banks followed, with only the Royal Bank of Scotland continuing to issue this denomination. UK notes include raised print e.
Three printing techniques are involved: offset litho , intaglio and letterpress ; and the notes incorporate a total of 85 specialized inks.
The Bank of England produces notes named "giant" and "titan". Giants and titans are used only within the banking system.
As the central bank of the United Kingdom which has been delegated authority by the government, the Bank of England sets the monetary policy for the British pound by controlling the amount of money in circulation.
It has a monopoly on the issuance of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the amount of banknotes issued by seven authorized banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Unlike banknotes which have separate issuers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, all UK coins are issued by the Royal Mint , which is an independent enterprise wholly owned by the Treasury which also mints coins for other countries.
In Britain's Crown Dependencies , the Manx pound , Jersey pound , and Guernsey pound are unregulated by the Bank of England and are issued independently.
These currencies do not have ISO codes, so "GBP" is usually used to represent all of them; informal codes are used where the difference is important.
British Overseas Territories are responsible for the monetary policy of their own currencies where they exist ,  and have their own ISO codes. The Falkland Islands pound , Gibraltar pound , and Saint Helena pound are set at a fixed exchange rate with the British pound by local governments.
Legal tender in the United Kingdom is defined such that "a debtor cannot successfully be sued for non-payment if he pays into court in legal tender.
Strictly speaking, it is necessary for the debtor to offer the exact amount due as there is no obligation for the other party to provide change.
Channel Islands and Isle of Man banknotes are legal tender only in their respective jurisdictions. Bank of England, Scottish, Northern Irish, Channel Islands, Isle of Man, Gibraltar, and Falkland banknotes may be offered anywhere in the UK, although there is no obligation to accept them as a means of payment, and acceptance varies.
For example, merchants in England generally accept Scottish and Northern Irish bills, but some unfamiliar with them may reject them.
In , the House of Commons Library published a research paper which included an index of prices in pounds for each year between and , where was indexed at Regarding the period — the document states: "Although there was considerable year on year fluctuation in price levels prior to reflecting the quality of the harvest, wars, etc.
It goes on to say that "Since prices have risen in every year with an aggregate rise of over 27 times". The value of the index in was 5.
The index was 9. Inflation has had a dramatic effect during and after World War II : the index was The table shows that from to the British pound lost about 92 per cent of its buying power.
The pound is freely bought and sold on the foreign exchange markets around the world, and its value relative to other currencies therefore fluctuates.
Sterling is used as a reserve currency around the world and is currently ranked fourth in value held as reserves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Official currency of the United Kingdom and other territories. For other uses, see GBP disambiguation. Multiple printers.
Multiple websites. Falkland Islands pound at par Gibraltar pound at par Saint Helena pound at par Jersey pound local issue Guernsey pound local issue Manx pound local issue.
Sovereignty Rule of law Law Taxation. The Crown. Elizabeth II Succession Prerogative. Bank of England.
European Parliament Elections — Scottish Parliament Elections. Northern Ireland Assembly Elections. Welsh Parliament Senedd Cymru Elections. UK Referendums.
Northern Ireland. Crown dependencies. Isle of Man. Overseas Territories. Foreign relations. Other countries. Main article: pound sign.
Main article: Cable foreign exchange. Main article: Anglo-Saxon pound. Main article: Sterling area. See also: Economic history of the UK, — Main article: Decimal Day.
Main article: United Kingdom and the euro. Main article: Coins of the pound sterling. Main article: Banknotes of the pound sterling.
Currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves — v t e. Money portal Numismatics portal United Kingdom portal.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 28 July Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved 22 January Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 30 June Business Insider.
Retrieved 30 June International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 October OED Online. December Oxford University Press. Entry Retrieved 28 February Online Etymology Dictionary.
Retrieved 19 February The Grammarphobia Blog. Sterling Judaica. Archived from the original on 30 December Family, Commerce, and Religion in London and Cologne.
Retrieved 16 September Silver coins known as "sterlings" were issued in the Saxon kingdoms, of them being minted from a pound of silver Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in "pounds of sterlings," a phrase later shortened Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 23 September Then I went to Mr.
Crew's and borrowed L10 of Mr. Andrewes for my own use, and so went to my office, where there was nothing to do.
Lexico Dictionaries English. Retrieved 11 June Houghton Mifflin. BBC News. Retrieved 14 February Credit Agricole CIB 6. Credit Suisse 7.
Deutsche Bank 8. HSBC 9. JP Morgan Chase Lloyds Banking Group Rabobank Royal Bank of Canada Norinchukin Bank Royal Bank of Scotland UBS AG.
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